newspaper Kesari in 1880–81 gave a boost to the development of Modern
Marathi Literature.
     Keshavasuta (1866–1905) is credited with the launching of the Modern
Marathi poetry movement in 1885. Around 1923 a group of poets led by
Madhav Julian (1894-1939) formed a group called Ravikiran Mandali, which
soon attainted eminence in the Marathi literary scene. Madhav Julian’s poetic
tale Virahatarang is a noteworthy work. B.R. Tambe (1874–1941), Chandra
Shekar Gorhe (1871–1937) and Manorambai Ranade (1896–1926) were other
prominent poets.
     Among the nationalist poets were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, V.D. Savarkar,
G.T. Davekar (1874–1956), S.N. Ranade (1892–1984) and N.G. Deshpande.
B.S. Mardhekar, P.S. Rage, N.C. Kelkar (1872–1947), S.K. Kolhatkar, C.V.
Joshi, Vinda Karandikar, Vasant Bapat and Shanta Shelke are some of other
well-known names of the last phase of the Modern Period of Marathi
     Hari Narayan Apte’s (1864–1919) Madhali Sthiti was the first novel to be
published in Marathi. Baba Padamji’s Yamuna Paryatan (1857) was the first
Marathi novel written on social reform. Natha Madhav, C.V. Vaidya, Prof
V.M. Joshi, V.S. Khandekar, Sane Guruji, Kusumvati Deshpande and
Kamalabai Tilak are prominent novelists of the Marathi language. Daya
Pawar’s Baluta is one of the first Dalit autobiographies in Marathi.
Tamil Literature
The modern period witnessed the impact of Islam and Christianity on Tamil
literature. Umaruppulavar (1605–1703 AD) was the earliest among the
Muslim Tamil poets. He composed the Sirappuranam, which is a narrative in
verse, on the life of Prophet Muhammad. Another work dealing with the
Islamic faith was Muhaidin Puranam (1845 AD) by Mohammad Ibrahim.
Constanzio Beschi (1680–1747 AD), who adopted the pseudonym of
‘Viramamunivar’, wrote a classic Tembavani, on the life of Jesus Christ.
     Subramanya Bharati (1882–1921 AD) was one of the greatest modern
Tamil literatures. He is renowned for his patriotic and devotional songs and
intense prose writings on contemporary social affairs. His Panchali Sabadam
is an epic poem based on a single episode of the Mahabharata. His other