He laid the foundation of the modern poem in Urdu.
    Other leading poets of the modern period include Syyid Akbar Husain
Akbar Allahabadi (1846–1921), who had a flair for extempore composition
of satiric and comic verses, Khushi Mohammed Nazir (1872–1944),
Mohammed Iqbal (1873–1938), Durga Sahai Suroor (d.1910), Mohammed
Ali Jauhar (d.1931) and Hasrat Mohani (d.1951). Iqbal’s poetry underwent
several phases of evolution from Romanticism to Indian Nationalism and
finally to Pan-Islamism.
    The short story in Urdu began with Munshi Premchand’s Soz-e-Vatan
(1908). Premchand’s short stories cover nearly a dozen volumes. Mohammed
Hussan Askari and Khwaja Ahmed Abbas are counted among the leading
lights of the Urdu short story.
    Novel writing in Urdu can be traced to Nazir Ahmed (1836–1912) who
composed several novels like Mirat-ul-Urus (1869), Taubat-un-Nasuh
(1877), Fasana-e-Mubtala (1885), Ayama (1891) and others. Pandit Ratan
Nath Sarshar’s (1845–1903) Fasana-e-Azad, Abdul Halim Sharar’s (1860–
1920) Badr-un-Nisa Ki Musibat and Agha Sadiq ki Shadi and Mirza
Muhammed Hadi Ruswa’s Umrao Jan Ada (1899) are some of the great
novels and novelettes written during this period. Niaz Fatehpuri (1887–1966)
and Qazi Abdul Gaffar (1862–1956) were the other eminent early romantic
novelists in Urdu.
    However, it was Premchand (1880–1936) who tried to introduce the trend
of realism in Urdu novels. His important novels include Bazare-e-Husn
(1917), Gosha-e-Ajiat, Chaugan-e-Hasti, Maidan-e-Amal and Godan.
Premchand’s realism was further strengthened by the writers of the Indian
Progressive Writers’ Association like Sajjad Zaheer, Krishn Chander and
Ismat Chughtai.
Marathi Literature
The Modern Period can be divided into four ages. The first period spans 1800
to 1885, the second 1885 to 1920, the third 1921 to 1945, and the last 1946 to
the present. This period witnessed the development of all forms of prose and
poetry, including scientific and technical literature.
    Several attempts were made to translate English works into Marathi. The