others. The history of Hindi poetry, thus, extends over a period of almost one
thousand years.
     The development of Hindi prose has been classified into three periods –
the first phase (1868-1918), the phase of growth (1918-1937) and the present
phase (1938 onwards).
Literating prose of the Bharatendu and Dwivedi era covers the first phase.
The writers of this age developed the drama, novel, short story, essay and
literary criticism. Bharatendu Harishchandra, Bal Krishna Bhatt and Radha
Krishna Das were the prominent writers of this period.
This phase of growth is represented by Jay Shankar Prasad (Chaya. Akash
Deep), Rai Krishna Das and Mahadevi Varma. Premchand (1880–1936) was
the greatest stalwart in the field of fiction. His works of fiction include
Sevasadana, Premasrama, Nirmala, Kayakalpa, Rangabhumi, Ghaban and
Godan. His last novel Godan has been translated in all major Indian
Important fiction writers of the contemporary period include Jainendra
Kumar (Sunita, Tyagapatra, Sukhada, Vivarta), Phanishwar Nath Renu
(Maila Anchal), Satchinanda Vatsyayan (Sekhar Ek Jivani), Dharamvir
Bharati (Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda), Yash Pal (Dada-comrade, Desh Drohi,
Divya and Manusya Ke Rupa), Jagdamba Prasad Dikshit (Murdaghar) and
Rahi Masoom Raza (Adha Gaon).
Urdu Literature
Modern Urdu literature covers the period from the last quarter of the 19th
century till the present day and can be divided into two periods: the period of
the Aligarh Movement started by Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan and the period
influenced by Sir Mohammed Iqbal, followed by the Progressive movement
and movements of Halqa-e-Arbab-e-Zouq, encompassing with Modernism
and Post-modernism.
     However, Altaf Hussain Hali (1837–1914) is the actual innovator of the
modern spirit in Urdu poetry. Hali lent showered a critical approach to the art
of writing biographies as seen in his biographies Hayat-e-Sadi and Hayat-e-
Jaweed. Shibli Nomani (b.1857) is considered the father of modern history in
Urdu. He produced several works based on historical research, especially on