Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar (1820–91), who is considered as the father of
modern Bengali literary prose, wrote Sakuntala (1854), Sitar Vanavasa
(1860) and Bhranti-vilasa (1869) based on the dramas of Kalidasa,
Bhavabhuti and Shakespeare respectively.
Other important Bengali writers and novelists of the 19th and the 20th
centuries include Charu Chandra Banerjee (1876–1938), Indira) Devi (1880–
1922), Anurupa Devi (1882–1958), Nirupama Devi (1883–1951),
Saurindramohan Mukherjee (1884–1966), Rakhaldas Banerjee (1885–1930),
Gokul Chandra Nag (1895–1925), Sailajananda Mukherjee (1900–1976),
Bibhutibhusan Banerjee (1899–1950), Rabindranath Maitra (1896–1933),
Rajsekhar Basu (1880–1960), Prabodhkumar Sanyal (b.1907), Sita Devi
(1896–1974) and Santa Devi (b.l894).
The Modern Period in Hindi literature began in the middle of the 19th
century. The most important development of this period was the evolution of
khariboli prose and proliferation of the use of khariboli in poetry in place of
braj bhasha. This period in the growth of Hindi poetry has been divided into
four phases: the age of Bharatendu or the Renaissance (1868–1893), Dwivedi
Yug (1893–1918), Chhayavada Yug (1918–1937) and the Contemporary
Period (1937 onwards).
Bharatendu Harishchandra (1849–1882), who brought in a modern
outlook in Hindi literature, is described as the ‘Father of Modern Hindi
Literature’. Radhakrishna Das, Pratapnarayan Mishra, Balkrishna Bhatta,
Badrinarayan Chaudhuri and Sudhakar Dwivedi were other important writers
of this phase.
Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi (1868–1938), who brought in a refined style of
writing in Hindi prose, is regarded as the architect of modern Hindi prose.
During this phase, social, political and economic problems were portrayed
through the medium of poetry. Other important writers of this period are
Nathuram Sharma Shankar (1859–1932), Ayodhya Sinha Upadhyay (1865–
1947), Maithali Saran Gupta (1886–1964), Ram Naresh Tripathi (1889–
1962) and Gopala Sarana Sinha (1891–1960). Maithali Saran Gupta revived