the famous Serampore missionaries—William
But of the 33 popular publications on the eve of the 1857 Revolt, only six
survived it. Next, Lytton’s Vernacular Press Act IX of 1878 muzzled the
language press all over India.
Growth in the Late 19th Century The introduction of public postal
service in 1870 provided for a uniform rate of payment irrespective of
distance. Another positive development was the invention of a printing press
operated by steam power. The Statesman was the first to import a rotary
printing machine. Reuter’s office in India was established in 1866 itself. The
formation of Associated Press of’ India was another landmark, though the
APT reports were viewed as biased.
     The formation of the Congress ushered in a new era in the history of
journalism. The Illustrated Weekly (1878) was started in Bombay and the
Capital was set up in Calcutta as a commercial and financial weekly (in
1888).
Growth in the Early 20th Century The twentieth century witnessed
further growth of the press. The Bombay Chronicle, inspired by Pherozeshah
Mehta, was launched in 1913. The Leader was started in Allahabad by Pandit
Madan Mohan Malaviya. It was essentially a mouthpiece of the moderates
popularise the Home Rule Movement, Annie Besa bought the Madras
Standard and renamed it New India.
     The Servant of India appeared in 1918 with V.S. Srinivasa Sastri as its
first editor. In 1919, Motilal Nehru set up the Independent which survived
only four years. Another newspaper to come into existence in 1919 was the
Hindustan Times with K.M. Panikkar as its first editor. Later it became the
official organ of the Swaraj Party.
     Gandhi also contributed to the growth of journalism India: In South
Africa he started Indian Opinion, and later in India he began Young India (a
English weekly) and Navajivan (Gujarati weekly) 1920 saw the foundation of
a Hindi daily, the A supporting the Congress programme. The first national
news agency, the Free Press of India, was set up in 1927. It was sponsored
by Annie Besan M.R. Jayakar, Purshottamdas Thakurdas, G.D. Birla and
Walchand Hirachand, with S. Sadanand as tt managing editor.
Growth in the 30s The Civil Disobedient Movement witnessed the
foundation of several nationalist papers. The Indian Express and Dinamani