Ahl-i-Hadis    Second Punjab        Maulana Syed This group of
(People of the half of              Nazir Hussain theologians
Hadis)         19th                                refused to
               century                             recognise the
                                                   existing four
                                                   schools of
                                                   jurisprudence and
                                                   considered only
                                                   hadis (Sayings of
                                                   the Prophet) and
                                                   the Quran as the
                                                   ultimate authority
                                                   on Islam.
Ahl-i-Quran    -do-    Punjab       Maulavi        They considered
(People of the                      Abdullah       only Quran as the
Quran)                              Chakrlavai     ultimate authority
                                    (his followers on Islam.
                                    are also
                                    known as
                                    ‘Chakralavis’)
Barelwis       Second Punjab        Maulana        They preached the
               half of              Ahmad Riza     revival of many
               19th                 Khan           old Islamic
               century                             practices, and
                                                   vehemently
                                                   opposed the
                                                   Deoband school
                                                   and its preachings.
Quadini or     End of Qadiani       Mirza Gulam Its aim was to
movement       the     in           Ahmad          reform Islam and
               19th    Punjab                      to defend it against
               century                             Christian
                                                   missionaries and
                                                   Arya Samajists. It