The neglect of medieval Indian history showed serious repercussions both
socially and politically, in later periods.
One of the main limitations of the Indian renaissance was a lack of unity and
a sound organisation. Opposition from orthodox elements was there at every
attempt of the reformers. For instance, Radhakanta Dev organised the
Dharma Sabha to protest against reforms of Roy, Sayyid Ahmed Khan was
attacked by the conservatives of Deoband Movement.
Rise of revival during the last decade of the 19th century in the form of
Theosophical society, also contributed to the declining zeal of the reform
The upsurge of militant nationalism, with its revivalist undertones,
strengthened this trend.
These movements were carried under constraints inherent in a colonial
society. They tended to lean more on alien rulers for help in their efforts to
achieve their ends.
Also the reformers lacked mass support as their ideas and programmes never
went beyond the reach of middle classes and their problems.
On top of all this, feudalism, though moribund, continued to be a major force
and its ideology did not show signs of a real break-up.
                      Hindu Socio-Religious Movements
   Name of the Year            Place          Founder           Remark
  Atmiya          1815 Calcutta           Rammohun       Its aim was to
  Sabha                                   Roy            attack the evils in
                                                         Hinduism and to
  Brahmo          1828     Calcutta       Rammohun       It was initially
  Samaj                                   Roy            known as Brahmo
                                                         Sabha and its aim
                                                         was the same as
  Dharma          1829     Calcutta       Radhakanta     It was founded as a
  Sabha                                   Dev