The neglect of medieval Indian history showed serious repercussions both
socially and politically, in later periods.
One of the main limitations of the Indian renaissance was a lack of unity and
a sound organisation. Opposition from orthodox elements was there at every
attempt of the reformers. For instance, Radhakanta Dev organised the
Dharma Sabha to protest against reforms of Roy, Sayyid Ahmed Khan was
attacked by the conservatives of Deoband Movement.
Rise of revival during the last decade of the 19th century in the form of
Theosophical society, also contributed to the declining zeal of the reform
The upsurge of militant nationalism, with its revivalist undertones,
strengthened this trend.
These movements were carried under constraints inherent in a colonial
society. They tended to lean more on alien rulers for help in their efforts to
achieve their ends.
Also the reformers lacked mass support as their ideas and programmes never
went beyond the reach of middle classes and their problems.
On top of all this, feudalism, though moribund, continued to be a major force
and its ideology did not show signs of a real break-up.
Hindu Socio-Religious Movements
Name of the Year Place Founder Remark
Atmiya 1815 Calcutta Rammohun Its aim was to
Sabha Roy attack the evils in
Hinduism and to
Brahmo 1828 Calcutta Rammohun It was initially
Samaj Roy known as Brahmo
Sabha and its aim
was the same as
Dharma 1829 Calcutta Radhakanta It was founded as a