(name of the institution) at Deoband in 1866 by Maulana Husain Ahmab and
others with the aim of resuscitating classical Islam and improving the
spiritual and moral conditions of the Muslims. The liberal interpretation of
Islam by its founders created political awakening among its followers, and
some of them like Maulana Abul Kalam Azad played an important role in the
national movement.
Ahrar Movement
It was a movement founded in the 1910 under the leadership of Maulana
Muhammad Ali, Hakim Ajmal Khan, Hasan Imam, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan
and Mazhar-ul-Haq in opposition to the loyalist politics of the Aligarh
movement. Moved by modern ideas of self-government its members
advocated active participation in the nationalist movement.
Ahmadia Movement
Also known as the Qadiani movement, it was founded by Mirza Ghulam
Ahmad (1837-1908) at Qadiani in Punjab, towards the end of the 19th
century with the objective of reforming Islam and defending it against the
onslaughts of Christian missionaries and the Arya Samajists. It gave religious
recognition to modern industrial and technological progress. And it has
become the most closely knit and the best organised Muslim group in India.
Other Muslim Reformers
Muhammad Iqbal (1873–1938)
He emphasised the need for a reconstruction of Muslim religious thought in
the light of the problems posed by the modem world; criticised those ascetic
elements of religious thought which made man parasitic and indolent, and
preached a life of self-assertion and self-realisation; influenced the
contemporary Muslim religious attitude through his poetry.
Maulana Shibli Numani
He founded the institution of Nadwah-ul-Ulama at Lucknow in 1894 with the
objectives of recasting Muslim educational system, developing religious
sciences, reforming Muslim morals and putting an end to theological
controversies with in Islam.