of failures at the matriculation examination.
There was a considerable wastage of manpower resources particularly in the
primary system; hence various remedies for combating this were suggested.
There was need to establish a centralised education agency at Delhi.
The transfer of control over primary education to local bodies was not
desirable, and larger powers were thus needed to be assumed by provincial
Finally, there was need for improvement in the salary scales of teachers,
increase in the inspectorate, improvement of curricula, emphasis on tutorial
work in colleges, adult education and other such cognate subjects.
Basic or Wardha Scheme of Education (1937) Basic education, also
called Nai Talim, was not so much a methodology of education as the
expression of an idea for a new life and a new society. The basic premise was
that only through this system of education could India build an independent,
non-violent society. The scheme was first put forward by Mahatma Gandhi in
1937 in a series of articles in his weekly, the Harijan. He emphasised that the
concept of free and compulsory primary education on a nationwide scale
should centre around some form of manual or productive work. All other
aspects to be developed or training imparted should, as far as possible, be
integrated with a central handicraft chosen with due regard to the
environment of the child.
    The first conference on ‘National Education’, as it was called, was
convened at Wardha on October 22-23, 1937. It appointed a committee under
the presidentship of Dr. Zakir Husain to prepare the syllabus, which it did by
December 1937.
    The Scheme was, in fact, the caping stone of Gandhi’s socio-political
edifice. After Independence, the scheme was accepted both by the union as
well as state governments as the pattern of national education at the
elementary stage.
Sargent Education Report (1944) The Central Advisory Board of
Education, with Sir JP Sargent as its chairman, presented in 1944 its report on
the post-war educational development in India. The report provided for
pre-primary education for children between 3 and 6 years of age;
universal, compulsory and free primary or basic education for all children
between the ages of 6 and 14;
high school education for 6 years