mass education.
    It was also during this phase that the concept of national education was
coined for the first time by leaders like Gandhi, Lala Lajpat Rai and Annie
Besant. According to them, the existing system of education was unhelpful
and even antagonistic to national development, and hence a new system
capable of fostering love of the motherland should be evolved. Accordingly,
a number of national institutions, such as Kashi Vidyapith and Jamia Millia
Islamia, were established, and they worked independently of the official
Fifth Phase (1921–47)
During this phase, education for the first time officially came under Indian
control in the sense that it became, under the provisions of the Montford Act
of 1919 (and the resultant dyarchical provincial governments), a provincial
transferred subject administered by a minister responsible to the provincial
legislature. As a result, there was unprecedented expansion at all levels of
education. Some significant developments of this period were—increase in
the number of universities (20 in 1947); improvement in the quality of higher
education due to the introduction of reforms based largely on the
recommendations of the Sadler Commission; establishment of an Inter-
University Board (1924) and beginning of inter-collegiate and inter-
university activities; significant achievements in the field of women’s
education and the education of the backward classes due to the liberal
concessions given to them by the popular ministries.
Hartog Committee Report (1928–29) In May 1928 the Simon
Commission appointed a five-member committee with Sir Philip Joseph
Hartog as its chairman to report on the growth of education in British India
and explore the potentialities of its further progress. In its report, the
Committee made the following observations:
Responsibility for mass education rests primarily with the state, and provision
of educational facilities for all should not be left entirely to the mercy of the
local authorities.
The general condition of secondary education was satisfactory but what was
appalling was the large number