English education alone. Consequently, a resolution based on Macaulay’s
Minute and accepted by William Bentinck’s government on March 7, 1835
proclaimed English as India’s official language.
According to Macaulay, from the new system would emerge a class who
though Indian in blood and the colour of the skin would be ‘English in tastes,
in opinions, in morals and in intellect’. These Indians would not only act as
interpreters between the English rulers and the Indian subjects but also
further help education gradually filter down to the masses by refining ‘the
vernacular dialects with terms of science borrowed from the western
In 1844, Lord Hardinge decided to give government employment to
Indians educated in English schools. The success of English education was
thus assured and it made good progress in the three presidencies of Bengal,
Bombay and Madras where a number of schools and colleges were opened
between 1813 and 1853.
Three other developments also took place during this phase.
A great upsurge in the activities of the missionaries who did pioneering work
in almost every field of modern education.
Establishment of medical, engineering and law colleges, which marked a
beginning in professional education.
Official sanction accorded to the education of girls (Lord Dalhousie, in fact,