elevating Hinduism to unprecedented levels in the West. His voice did a great
deal to swell feelings of national pride. Sayyid Ahmed Khan was the pioneer
of reform movement in the Muslim community. He helped the Muslims to
get modern education and turn British sympathies towards his community.
Nature of Indian Renaissance It is to be noted that the reformers, with the
sole exception of Tilak, depended on the colonial power to introduce social
and religious reforms. Moreover, all the important reform movements of the
19th century were religious rather than secular in nature. Their political and
economic ideas were never radical and fell within the natural economic
principles of the day. There were several differences among the reformers
regarding the approach and methods of the movement. Though the
achievements of the reform movements in the 19th century are not so
impressive in the immediate sense, they did make a beginning and influenced
the future developments. The spirit of nationalism which emerged from the
cultural revolution highlighted the necessity to fight for reforms.
First Phase (1758-1812)
Second Phase (1813-53)
Third Phase (1854-1900)
Fourth Phase (1901-20)
Fifth Phase (1921-47)
First Phase (1758–1812)
The English East India Company showed very little interest in the education
of its subjects during this period, the only two minor exceptions being the
Calcutta Madrasah set up by Warren Hastings in 1781 for the study and
teaching of Muslim law and related subjects, and the Sanskrit College at
Varanasi by Jonathan Duncan in 1792 for the study of Hindu law and
philosophy (both were designed to provide a regular supply of qualified
Indians to help the administration  of law in the courts of the Company).