separate Assam Railway.
Prior to 1944, Indian railways fell into the following broad categories: (i)
state-owned lines managed by the state; (ii) state-owned lines managed by
private companies; (iii) company-owned lines managed by the companies;
(iv) lines belonging to the Indian government; and (v) miscellaneous lines,
company lines or district board lines. By 1944, second and third categories
had been completely nationalised; almost all, barring some 533 miles, were
either directly with the government or with its agencies.
    Thus, by 1944, the nationalisation of practically the entire railway
mileage network in India had been completed. In 1946 the total railway
mileage was to broad guage 20,686.60; meter gauge 16,004.23; and narrow
gauge 3,827.08.
COMMERCIALISATION OF AGRICULTURE
Causes Commercial agriculture, that is, the production of crops for sale
rather than for own consumption, grew because of a variety of reasons: One
basic reason was the constant need of the peasants under the new land
systems to find ways of getting money to meet the mounting demands upon
them by the state. The peasants started growing only particular crops. The
land in groups of villages was solely used, because of its special suitability,
for the cultivation of a single agricultural crop such as cotton, indigo, jute,
wheat, sugarcane, tobacco, tea, poppy (from which opium is extracted) and
oil seeds. Another basic reason for the rapid growth in the cultivation of cash
crops was that the British government of India encouraged this. With the rise
of modern industries in England, the necessity of raw materials for those
industries grew. The British government in India pursued economic policies
which expanded the area for growth of such raw materials as needed by the
British industries. The government gradually improved the means of
transport which made commerce in agriculture more widespread. Thus the
government accelerated the commercialisation and specialisation of Indian
agriculture.
Results The commercialisation and specialisation of agriculture also
disrupted the unity of agriculture and industry in the traditional Indian
village. Thus the older rural framework of India, weakened by the new land