the village panchayats weakened the autonomy of village administration.
Functions and duties of village officials came to be supervised by the taluq
and district headquarters to which now the village officials became
responsible. The Indian villages began to be gradually brought into contact
with outside world. Also, the more enterprising among the village folk,
when compelled by circumstances, moved away from their villages,
seeking employment in newly developing factories, mines, plantations or
Changes in Social Institutions and Attitudes and Values: Another
impact right from the establishment of British rule in India was that it
brought about certain fundamental changes in the Indian social structure
and Indian attitude and values. For example, the joint family system was a
typical institution in Indian villages. All the near relations lived under the
same roof and held property (especially land) jointly, had common kitchen
and common worship. Such a joint family system bestowed certain
advantages such as large-scale cultivation of land, economic security to
the aged, infants and disabled, better management of property, etc. But it
also discouraged initiative and development of individual personality.
When Indian villages began to be linked to towns and urban centers, and
when some members of the family migrated to towns in search of jobs in
factories or in railways or in mines, naturally this started bringing about
gradual disintegration of the joint family system. The urban impact, the
individualistic spirit fostered by the introduction of English education after
1833, and introduction of the English legal system in India resulted in
gradual disintegration of the joint family system not only in towns but also
in villages and in its place was gradually substituted the nuclear family
Finance Imperialism (1860–1947)
This period was marked by:
Intense struggle for new, secure and exclusive markets and sources of raw
materials among the industrialised countries.
The consequent export of capital by these countries to the colonies.
Replacement of liberal policies