Enlargement of the Provincial Legislative Councils and removal of official
majority in them.
Retention of official majority in the Imperial Legislative Council.
Increase in the deliberative functions of the Councils at both levels.
Still majority of the non-officials at both levels were indirectly elected.
Government of India Act of 1919 or the Montague-Chelmsford
Reforms or Montford Reforms
Introduction of ‘Dyarchy’ in the provinces; division of the provincial subjects
into ‘Reserved Subjects’ (like police, jails, land revenue, irrigation, forests,
etc. to be administered by the Governor and his Executive Council) and
‘Transferred Subjects’ (like education, local self-government, public health
and sanitation, agriculture, industries, etc., to be looked after by the Governor
and his ministers).
Relaxation of central control over the provinces through ‘Devolution Rules’
which categorised the subjects of· administration into two groups, viz.
Central and Provincial. (This devolution of powers to the provinces should
not, however, be mistaken for a federal distribution of powers for the
provinces in this case got their powers by way of delegation from the centre
and not as constitutional division).
Making the Central Legislature bicameral (consisting of the Council of States
and Legislative Assembly) and more representative by removing the official
majority and increasing the non-official directly elected majority.
The salaries of the Secretary of State for India and his assistants to be paid
out of the British revenues (hitherto they were paid out of Indian revenues).
Appointment of a High Commissioner of India at London, who was
responsible to Indian Government and paid by it. His duties to procure stores
for Indian government, to supply trade information and promote commerce,
and to look after the education of Indian students in England.
Government of India Act 1935
Provision for the establishment of an All India Federation to be based on a
union of the provinces of British India and the Princely States (It did not
come into existence since the