Government of India Act of 1853
Abolition of the company’s rule and beginning of the rule by the British
Abolition of the Board of Control and the Court of Directors.
Appointment of a Secretary of State for India (who would be a member of the
British Cabinet) who would rule India with the aid of a Council, viz. India
Council, consisting of 15 members.[tap](Sir Charles Wood, the last President
of the Board of Control, was made the first Secretary of State for India).
Making the Governor General of India the Viceroy as well (Lord Canning—
first Viceroy as well as Governor General of India) and increased control of
British Home Government over the Viceroy (through the new Secretary of
State for India) due to the establishment of direct telegraph link.
India Councils Act of 1861
Enlargement of the legislative wing of the Viceroy’s council (from now
onwards known as the Imperial Legisla:ive Council).
Introduction of the Portfolio System (based on Lord Canning’s rules of
business) by which each member of the Viceroy’s Executive Council was put
in charge of a department.
Establishment of Legislative Councils in various provinces like Madras,
Bombay and Bengal.
Indian Councils Act of 1892
Introduction of indirect elections for the non-official members of the Imperial
and Provincial Legislative Councils: those of the former were to be
nominated by the Bengal Chamber of Commerce and the Provincial
Legislative Councils; those of the latter by certain local bodies such as
universities, district boards, municipalities, etc. Retention of official majority
at both levels.
The Councils at both levels were to have the power of discussing the budget
(but not of voting) and of addressing questions to the executives.
Indian Councils Act of 1909           or the Morley-Minto Reforms