charge of the collector who was directly
English school and the Indian school. The former wanted a limited role while
the latter favoured a paternalistic role and full powers. Reforms of Cornwallis
(belonging to the former) included inter alia separation of revenue from
judicial and police functions. Munro, Elphinstone and Lawrence (supporters
of the latter) worked for the restoration of the collector-magistrate, and their
efforts finally resulted in the firm establishment of the collector-magistrate
after 1857. Later tendencies to reduce the responsibilities of the collector
arose due to several factors like the expansion of government’s welfare
activities, growth of local self-government and the like. However the
collector still continued to be the principal officer of the district.
Growth of local self-Government The Britishers initiated half-hearted
attempts to set lip municipal bodies in the mercantile stage and again in the
1850s and 60s. Reforms of Ripon gave a fillip to the movement, but all the
local bodies prior to 1919 lacked genuine democratic spirit and suffered from
warranted official domination.
                             CIVIL SERVICES
  Government of lndia came to being a bureaucracy or government by
  officials through the following stages—transformation of the Company’s
  service from a ‘mercantile service’ into an ‘administrative service’;
  reforms of Cornwallis—his creation of a modern civil service in the form
  of the Covenanted Civil Service of India (known as the ICS after 1861);
  establishment of Fort William College at Calcutta by Wellesley and later
  its replacement by Haileybury college in England; and replacement of the
  system of patronage by a proper recruitment method through open
  competitive examinations.
         Further developments were the constitution of several specialised
  and technical services from the second half of the 19th century, and
  provincial and ‘ordinate services’ after 1890.
         The civil services came to have the presence of many Indians under
  Clive and Warren Hastings, but Indians were excluded from the time of
  Cornwallis. Bentinck undertook measures to improve the status Indian
  officials.
  Indianisation of higher services           ’Scholarship Scheme’ (1868) and