Government
Executive Branch The governor-general WClS made constitutionally
responsibility to the secretary of state, and the provincial heads answerability
to the governor-general was also enshrined in the rules. In practice, however,
the ‘man on the spot’ theory held sway.
    Executive councils of the governor-general and the governors came to
gain considerable size. However, their size was reduced after 1773. Initially
the chiefs of the councils had no special powers, but later they were given the
power to overrule their councils. The early cumbrous and dilatory procedure
of the councils was replaced by the ‘portfolio system’ under Canning’s Rules
of Business.
Legislative Branch The legislative process in India evolved through the
following developments. governor general-in-council made the sole legislator
for India by the Act of 1833; appointment of a law commission under
Macaulay; reorganisation of legislative machinery by the Act of 1853;
creation of an ‘official’ legislature by adding more members to the governor-
general’s council; decentralisation of legislative authority by the Act of 1861
which established provincial legislatures; enlargement of legislative councils
and provision for election of members in 1892; Morley-Minto Reforms of
1909; and Montford Reforms of 1919.
Judicial Branch The evolution of the judicial system in India witnessed
the following landmarks—Warren Hastings’ efforts to establish a well-
organised judicial system in 1772; parallel system of courts, one subservient
to the company and other independent of it, between 1781 and 1861;
establishment of a common system of high courts in all presidencies by the
Act of 1861; introduction of the principles of the ‘Rule of Law’ and ‘Equality
before Law’. Two recurring problems were the unwillingness of the
Europeans to be tried by Indian Judges, and executive officers exercising
judicial authority.
Departmentalisation of the Government The Company initially
functioned with only two committees or departments—secret and select
committees, but gradually created more and more departments for smooth
and efficient functioning of the government.
Growth of District Administration District was an important unit of
administration, and was in