could flourish along with the
soon realised that imperial authoritarianism
reinforced by both the Cornwallis system and the Munro system. If the
Awadh taluqdars lost out, their agony caused the revolt of 1857; and after the
revolt, they were again restored to their former positions of glory and
  Two clear-cut trends were steadily emerging in the Indian administration
  of the East India Company, though they were not completely isolated.
  There was, on the one hand, the Cornwallis system, centered in Bengal,
  and based primarily on the Permanent Settlement. Lord Cornwallis
  introduced Permanent Settlement with the hope that the rule of law and
  private property rights would liberate individual enterprise from the
  shackles of custom and tradition, and would bring in modernisation to the
  economy and society. But Thomas Munro in Madras, and his followers in
  western and northern India, such as Mountstuart Elphinstone, John
  Malcolm and Charles Metcalfe, thought that the Cornwallis system did not
  consider Indian tradition and experience. Though they were not opposed
  to the rule of law or separation of powers, they felt that such reforms had
  to be suitably amended for the Indian context. Further, they held that some
  aspects of the Indian tradition of personal government needed to be
  maintained. Munro therefore, proceeded to introduce his Ryotwari
  Settlement, with the objective of preserving India’s village communities.
  But ultimately, his aim was to strengthen the Company’s state in the south
  by expanding its revenue base, where land taxes would be collected
  directly from the peasants by a large number of British officers, an idea he
  had derived from the revenue administration of Tipu Sultan’s Mysore.
                       Rival Schools of Administrators
 Occidentialists          Orientalists
 Anglicists               Indian/Paternalists
 Bengal School            Madras School
 Cornwallis,              Thomas Munro, Elphinstone, John Malcolm,
 Wellesley, etc.