Theoretical Basis of British Raj
           TWO STAGES OF BRITISH IMPERIALISM
  From the time of the geographical discoveries in general and the conquest
  of Ireland in particular, in the sixteenth century, the English gradually
  emerged as the “new Romans, charged with civilizing backward peoples”
  across the world, from Ireland to America and from India to Africa. This
  imperial history of England is generally seen in two stages, the “first
  empire” extending across the Atlantic towards America and the West
  Indies, and the “second empire” beginning from around 1783 (Peace of
  Paris) and veering towards the East, i.e., Asia and Africa. As British
  jingoism steadily developed in the eighteenth century, it was closely
  associated with the grandeur and glories of having overseas territorial
  possessions.
Theory of Whiteman’s Burden In a post-Enlightenment intellectual
environment, the British also began projecting themselves as modern or
civilized vis-a-vis the Orientals and this rationalised their imperial vision in
the nineteenth century, which witnessed the so-called ‘age of reform’. In
other words, British imperial ideology for India was the result of such
intellectual and political crosscurrents at home. Occasionally, “sub-
imperialism” of the men on the spot, considered by some as the “real
founders of empire”, and pressures from the ruled or the subjugated led to
adjustments and changes in the functioning of that ideology. The nature of
the imperial relationship also changed over time; but not its fundamentals.
Early Nature of English Government The government of the East India
Company supposedly operated like an “Indian ruler”, because it recognised
the authority of the Mughal emperor, issued coins in his name, utilized
Persian as the official language and enforced Hindu and Muslim laws in the
courts. Lord Clive himself had adopted a system of “double government” as a
matter of expediency, under which the nizamat affairs were left in the hands
of Nawab’s officials, while the diwani matters were controlled by the
Company. This policy of least         intervention had originated from pure