was pensioned off and sent to England along with his mother Rani Jindan).
Establishment of a Board of Three Commissioners (Lawrence brothers—
Henry and John, and Charles G Mansel) in 1849 to administer Punjab;
Abolition of the Board and appointment of a Chief Commissioner for Punjab
in 1853 (Sir John Lawrence—the first Chief Commissioner for Punjab).
Rise of Sind as an Autonomous State
First under Kaloras and from 1783 under Amirs of Baluchistan, it became
autonomous after the disintegration of the Mughal Empire. Under the Amirs
of’ the Baluchi tribe, it was divided into three units (Hyderabad, Mirpur and
Khairpur), each under a separate branch of the tribe.
Causes The causes for the British annexation of Sind are as follows:
Commercial possibilities of the Indus.
British fear of the expansion of the Russian Empire towards the East.
British desire to increase its influence in Persia and Afghanistan through
control over Sind.
Early Relations between Sind and the British The early relations
between Sind and the British consisted of the following events:
Lord Minto I sent an ambassador to the Amirs in 1809 and concluded a
friendship treaty with them.
Journey of Alexander Burnes up the Indus on his way to Lahore in 1831.
Conclusion of a treaty by Lord Bentinck with them in 1832, by which the
roads and rivers of Sind were opened to English trade.
Lord Auckland forced the Amirs to sign the Subsidiary Treaty in 1839.
War and Annexation
The events involved in the war and annexation of Sind were:
Lord Ellenborough unnecessarily provoked the Amirs and people of Sind into
a war.
Appointment of Sir Charles Napier      as the British resident in Sind in place of