receive an accredited British minister.
heirs and successors.
First War (1845–46)
Causes The main reasons behind the Fourth war were:
Anarchy in Punjab after the death of Ranjit: Murder of three rulers (Kharak
Singh, Nao Nihal Singh and Sher Singh) within six years (1839–45);
succession of Dalip Singh (five-year-old son of Ranjit) (1845); absence of
any control over the army (Khalsa).
British policy of encirclement of Punjab from 1833 itself (occupation of
Ferozpur in 1835 and Sikharpur in 1836, and appointment of British
Residents at Ludhiana and in Sind in 1838) and their military preparations
(increase of their army from 2,500 in 1836 to 14,000 in 1843).
Confirmation of the suspicions of the Sikh army by the annexation of Sind by
the British in 1843.
Course The course of events in the war was as follows:
Defeat of the Sikh army under Lal Singh (Prime Minister) by Sir Hugh
Gough at Mudki (1945).
Defeat of Sikh army under Tej Singh (commander-in-chief) by the British at
Defeat of the British under Harry Smith by the Sikhs under Ranjur Singh
Majhithia at Buddewal (1846).
Defeat of Sikhs by Smith at Aliwal and Sobroan (1846) (the second one
being one of the hardest-fought battles in Indian history) and crossing of the
Sutlej and occupation of Lahore by the British.
Results This war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Lahore (March,
1846), which resulted in:
Ceding of the Jullunder Doab to the British and payment of an indemnity of
Rs 1.5 crore (Sikhs could pay only half of this amount and for the rest British
got Kashmir which they sold to Gulab Singh).
Appointment of a British resident at Lahore (Sir Henry Lawrence) and
recognition of Dalip Singh as