company becoming the paramount power in
erstwhile allies, the Pathans, had gradually spread to areas directly held, or
indirectly ruled, by the Company. With the approval of the Court of
Directors, the then governor-general Hastings assembled a large force to
round up and exterminate the seemingly lawless Pindari hordes and their
chiefs—Karim Khan, Wasil Muhammad and Chitu.
    Surrounded in Malwa, the Pindaris fled to Mewar but were forced to
retreat, suffering heavy casualties in the process. Karim Khan submitted and
was offered an estate at Gawashpur; Wasil Muhammad was forced to lay
down arms and died in captivity; Chitu was defeated and not heard of again.
In the operations lasting over a year, the Pindaris were virtually annihilated.
Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–18)
Causes The two main causes of the war were:
Resentment of the Marathas against the loss of their freedom to the British.
Rigid control exercised by the British Residents on the Maratha Chiefs.
Consequences The war resulted in the following:
Dethronement of the Peshwa (he was pensioned off and sent to Bithur near
Kanpur) and the annexation of all his territories by the British (the creation of
the Bombay Presidency).
Creation of the kingdom of Satara out of the Peshwa’s lands to satisfy
Maratha pride.
Conceding of large territories by the Maratha chiefs to the company.
Thus, after this war, the Maratha chiefs too existed at the mercy of the
Anglo-Maratha Treaties
Treaty of Surat (1175) For a long time the Court of Directors had been
asking the Bombay Presidency to acquire among others the strategically
located islands of Salsette and Bassein by peaceful means, if possible, or by
force, if necessary. The death of Peshwa Madhav Rao (1772) came as a
blessing for the British, as both Raghoba and Narayana Rao were rival
claimants to the now vacant throne. When Raghoba had Narayan Rao
murdered in 1773, the Maratha sardars under Nana Phadnis turned against