contribution towards the expenses of the Company’s armies.
Similarly, Wellesley annexed territories taken from Mysore, but previously
allotted to its ally, the Nizam of Hyderabad. These ‘ceded territories’,
Hyderabad’s spoils of the Mysore Wars, went to the Company in partial
payment for Hyderabad’s subsidy of the Company’s armies.
Anglo-Maratha Relations Under Wellesley, the Company also continued
its wars against states on its borders which had not yet come under its indirect
control, most notably the Maratha states of western and central India. The
East India Company’s Bombay Presidency lay in the midst of the Maratha
states, but had until the end of the eighteenth century, been unable to match
them in military strength.
Much hostile exchange and inconclusive fighting had continued (1775-82)
between Bombay and various Maratha rulers. At best, Bombay had only
reached a point of uneasy, temporary balance with these states.
The Company’s annexations following its final military victory over the
Mysore state in 1799, however, led to direct confrontations with the Marathas
in a series of wars with the various Maratha rulers (1803-05, 1817-18).
Here we see how one set of annexations (from Mysore) by the Company led
not to a stable frontier, but rather to its confrontation with a range of states on
its new periphery (the Marathas). Each sequential Maratha defeat resulted in
a substantial annexation by the Company in central India (totalling some
180,000 square miles or 466,000 square kilometres).
Following Wellesley’s lead, annexation accomplished by political initiative
against its subsidiary allies or military conquest of hostile states emerged as
the explicit goal of many of the Company’s officials in India.
The Company’s territorial acquisitions under Wellesley resulting from the
last Mysore War (1799), the cession of the Ganga-Yamuna doab from Awadh
(1801), and the consequences of the Maratha wars (1803-05) totalled over
135,000 square miles, an area the size of reunited Germany.
Renewed Policy of Non-intervention Not all British policy-makers agreed
with Wellesley’s attitude towards annexation. Wellesley followed his own
policies, paying little heed to the interests or advice of anyone, including his
superiors, who tried to restrain him from wars and annexation. In 1805, the
Court of Directors finally recalled Wellesley and reappointed Cornwallis as
Governor General, to administer