concubines and led a luxurious life. Jai Singh’s death took place in 1743 after
a reign of 44 years and he was cremated at Getore in Brahampuri where a
marble cenotaph commemorates him. He was survived by two sons.
RISE OF URDU LANGUAGE
Origin of Urdu Language
Urdu, literally meaning “camp” in Turkish, is a mixture of many tongues and
languages. Muslims brought many different languages to India, and mixed
India’s languages freely with words from their own. When Delhi was the seat
of Muslim power in the early 13th century the languages around Delhi,
mainly Brij bhasha and Sauraseni became heavily mixed with Persian, the
lingua franca of the Muslim rulers. Other languages that found their way into
the languages of India were Turkish and Arabic. Whereas much of the
vocabulary of the original languages (Sauraseni, for example) changed, the
basic grammatical structure remained intact.
In the 13th century, the language of India became widely known as
Hindavi. Hindi, and Brij bhasha and was written in the devanagri script (the
Sanskrit script). The name ‘Urdu’ was given to the thriving language of this
region in the period of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan (1627–58). This
language was introduced in the Deccan by the armies and followers of the
Tughluq and Khalji kings in the 14th century.
Affected by the dialects of the South, the language then became known as
Deccani (after Hyderabad Deccan). However, the written script remained
Persian and this new hybrid soon replaced Persian as the official language.
The first Urdu poet was Amir Khusro (1253-1325). Later, the language it
received significant contributions from Kabir, Mira Bai, Guru Nanak, Malik
Mohammad Jaisi and Abdul Rahim Khan-i-Khanan.
Growth of Urdu
Before Amir Khusro (1253–1325), the language of poetry was primarily the
vernacular Brij bhasha. Amir Khusro interspersed it with Persian, as the first
school of ghazal poets emerged