empire; his Indian territories were henceforth confined to the Panjab and
  Sind. He never returned to Delhi and his own kingdom was to break up in
  its turn within half a century.
Life of Sawai Jai Singh II
Maharaja Jai Singh (1699–1743) was born in 1688. He ascended the throne in
1699 when he was still a minor. He founded, after his name, the new city of
Jaipur in 1728. From this time the town of Amber, the old capital of
Kachhawas, lost its importance and the history of the subsequent rulers of
Dhundar is associated with the new capital. He was undoubtedly one of the
most remarkable men of his time and a man of science. He lived during a
period of anarchy in India. On Jai Singh’s accession, the Amber State
comprised the three districts of Amber, Dosa and Baswa only and possessed
little political weight.
     At the time of his death the two provinces of Rajore and Deoti that were
added to the Shekhawati confederation had become tributary. Amber was
raised from a small principality to an extensive domain and Jaipur was
recognised for the first time as a raj or kingdom and had become one of the
premier states in Rajputana. Jai Singh distinguished himself as a man of
science, as a soldier and also as a builder. He was well versed in Sanskrit and
Persian and was deeply interested in Mathematics and Astronomy.
     In 1721 with the removal of Sayyids and the accession of Muhammed
Shah on the throne of Delhi, Jai Singh devoted himself to his favourite
pursuits, Astronomy and History and built his observatories at Delhi, Jaipur,
Ujjain, Mathura and Banaras. So deep and perfect was his knowledge in
Astronomy that he discovered errors in the tables of De La Hire sent to him
by the king of Portugal. The instruments of Ulug Beg, the Royal Astronomer
of Sumarkand and those used by the Turkey Astronomers failed to answer his
     In 1723 Jai Singh published his tables, the Zeech Mohammed Shahi
(Movements of heavenly bodies).        Samrath Jaggannath Bhatt, a Maratha and