and Amritsar (1802) where he added the golden dome to the Golden Temple;
assumption of the title of Maharaja of Lahore (1799); gradual establishment
of his control over all the Sikh mists west of the Sutlej; occupation of
Ludhiana (1806) were his early achievements.
Treaty of Amritsar (1809) Metcalfe was sent to negotiate a treaty with
Ranjit Singh for thwarting a possible French advance into India. The parleys
were protracted as both parties devised ways and means to further their own
selfish ends. British advance coupled with the adroitness of the young
Metcalfe who assured the Sikh chief that he could make conquests in other
directions without British interference, made Ranjit Singh pause. British
armed presence coupled with the fear that some more Punjab chiefs might
flock to the British banner and seek their protection made the Sikh ruler to
sign a treaty. The treaty, signed formally at Amritsar on April 25, 1809,
provided for:
perpetual friendship and most favoured power treatment for Ranjit Singh;
recognition of Ranjit’s sovereignty over all territories north of the Sutlej; and
permission to keep troops on the left bank of the river only to the extent
required for the internal security of that territory.
    Besides the occupation of Kangra (1809), Attock (1813), Multan (1818),
Kashmir (1819), Peshawar (1823) and many other places like Tonk, Kohat,
Bannu, etc., he acquired Kohinoor diamond from Shah Shuja of Afghanistan
after giving him protection in 1814. (It was taken from the Mughals by Nadir
Shah, from whom Ahmed Shah Abdali acquired it, and it was inherited by
Shah Shuja who belonged to Abdali’s dynasty. After the second Anglo-Sikh
War, the British acquired it and took to England where it still remains.)
Meeting between Ranjit Singh and Lord Bentinck took place in 1831.
    Conclusion of the Tripartite Treaty by Ranjit with Lord Auckland
(Governor-General of India) and Shah Shuja (1838) to invade Afghanistan
and to place Shah Shuja on its throne was followed by the outbreak of the
First Afghan War (1838-42). But Ranjit refused to permit the British troops
to march through his territory during the war.
Ranjit Singh’s reforms They include organisation of his army on western
lines with the help of Europeans; recruitment of not only Sikhs but also
Gorkhas, Biharis, Pathans, Punjabi Muslims, etc., as soldiers; establishment
of modem foundries to manufacture