leading Indian powers. He fought the First Anglo-Mysore War and the
Second Anglo-Mysore War and died (1782) due to cancer during the course
of the war.
Tipu Sultan (1782–99)
Succeeding Haider, he continued the second war with British till 1785. He
fought the Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790-92) and the Fourth Anglo-Mysore
War (1799) and died while fighting the British.
His economic reforms He was the only Indian ruler to have understood the
importance of eco- nomic strength as the foundation of military strength. His
reforms include attempts to introduce modern industries by importing foreign
experts and extending state support to many industries; sending ambassadors
to France, Turkey, Iran and Pegu to develop foreign trade; attempts to set up
a trading company on the European lines; introduction of a new system of
coinage, new scales of weights and measures, and a new calendar.
Revenue reforms They include attempts to increase the state income by the
abolition of the Jagir system, and also by reducing the hereditary possessions
of the poligars (feudal chiefs); attempts to improve the position of the
peasantry by checking collection of illegal cesses, and by granting remission
whenever the need arose.
Military reforms He organised the infantry on the European lines and
made attempts to build a modern navy—establishment of two dockyards.
    His interest in French Revolution can be seen in his planting of a Tree of
Liberty at Seringapatam and becoming a member of the Jacobian club.
Punjab (1792–1849)
Rise of Sikh community under the Sikh Gurus was followed by disorder in
Punjab following the invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali, particularly the last
one in 1767. Then came the organisation of the Sikhs into 12 misls
(confederacies) in Punjab and their rise into prominence.
Ranjit Singh (1792–1839)
Born to the chief of the Sukerchakia misl in 1780, he succeeded to the
chieftainship in 1792 as a minor with his mother as the regent and assumed of