This impelled the Nawab to come to an understanding and establish peace
with the English four days later. The treaty comprised:
a list of demands made by the Company;
an agreement affirming to return to the status quo ante;
a number of farmans and dastaks issued by the Nawab; and
an agreement that ‘as long, as he (the Nawab) shall observe his agreement,
the English will always look upon his enemies as their enemies’ and grant
him all assistance in their power.
In sum, all the trade privileges held earlier by the Company stood
confirmed, and these could not be called into question. Additionally, the
English were authorised to fortify Calcutta against possible French attack and
to strike its own coins. While the Nawab agreed to make good all losses the
English had incurred and abide by other articles of the treaty, the English
promised him their friendship and goodwill.
The treaty was violated by the conquest of Chandranagore by the British
in March, 1757. Siraj protested by offering protection to the French. The
British reacted by conspiring (June, 1757) to replace Siraj. In the same year
Watson’s signature was forged by Clive to please Omichand, who wanted a
bigger share for acting as the intermediary between the British and the other
The Battle of Plassey (a place on the banks of the Bhagirathi) took place
on June 23, 1757. This battle saw the treachery of Mir Jafar and Rai Durlabh;
bravery of a small force under Mohanlal and Mir Madan; desertion of the
Nawab’s forces and escape of Siraj; and his capture and execution by Miran
(son of Mir Jafar).
Mir Jafar (1757–60)
He granted the right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and the
zamindari of the 24 Parganas to the British, besides paying them a sum of Rs
17.7 million as compensation for the attack on Calcutta, and many other
‘gifts’ to the British officials. His reign saw the beginning of the drain of
wealth from India to Britain. He made futile efforts to replace the English by
the Dutch, but the Dutch were defeated by the English at Bedara in 1759.