and paying land revenue in times of famines.
Reorganisation of administration and giving equal opportunities of
employment to Muslims and Hindus. (His policy of appointing local Hindu
zamindars and moneylenders as revenue-farmers led to the rise and growth of
a new landed aristocracy in Bengal).
Expansion of trade and commerce by giving encouragement to Indian and
foreign merchants, providing security to them on roads and rivers, checking
private trade by officials, preventing abuses in customs administration and so
Foreign trading companies—maintaining strict control over their activities;
preventing the servants of the East India Company from abusing the
privileges granted to the company by the Mughal farmans of 1691
(Aurangzeb’s) and 1717 (Farukh Siyar’s).
Establishment of law and order by suppressing the rebellious zamindars.
Shuja-ud-din (1727–39)
He was the son-in-law of Murshid. He continued the policies and reforms of
Murshid. He was granted the governorship of Bihar as well by the emperor
(Muhammad Shah) in 1733 (from now on the nawabs of Bengal ruled over
Bengal, Bihar and Orissa).
Sarfaraz Khan (1739–40)
Son of Shuja, he was murdered by Alivardi-Khan, the deputy governor of
Bihar, in 1740.
Alivardi Khan (1740–56)
He legalised his usurpation by receiving a farman from emperor Muhammad
Shah after paying him Rs two crore. During his reign there were continuous
incursions of the Marathas into Bengal. He bought peace with them by ceding
the revenues of a part of Orissa (to Raghuji Bhonsle) and an annual payment
of Rs 12 lakh as the chauth of Bengal (1751).
    He prevented the English from misusing their privileges, and prohibited
them and the French from