at Gwalior and (e) the Peshwas at Poona.
    After defeating and expelling the Siddhis of, Janjira from the mainland
(1722), he conquered Bassein and Salsette from the Portuguese (1733). He
also defeated the Nizam-ul-Mulk near Bhopal and concluded the treaty of
Durai Sarai by which he got Malwa and Bundelkhand from the latter (1737).
He led innumerable successful expeditions into north India to weaken the
Mughal empire and to make the Marathas the supreme power in India. He
said: ‘Let us strike at the trunk of the withering tree and the branches will fall
of themselves.’
Balaji Baji Rao (1740-61)
Popularly known as Nana Saheb, he succeeded his father at the age of 20.
After the death of Shahu (1749), the management of all state affairs was left
in his hands. Shahu died childless, and though he had nominated Ramraja (a
grandson of Rajaram) as his successor, the latter was imprisoned at Satara by
the Peshwa on the suspicion that he was an imposter.
    An agreement was reached between the Mughal emperor (Ahmad Shah)
and the Peshwa (1752) that the latter would protect the Mughal empire from
internal and external (Ahmad Shah Abdali) enemies in return for the chauth
of the north-west provinces and the total revenues of Agra and Ajmer
provinces. This agreement brought the Marathas in direct conflict with
Ahmad Shah Abdali of Afghanistan.
    The battle of Panipat (January 14, 1761) resulted in the defeat of the
Marathas by Ahmad Shah Abdali and the death of Viswas Rao (son of Nana
Saheb) and Sadasiv Rao Bhau (cousin of Nana Saheb) and several other
Maratha leaders and 28,000 soldiers. The battle decided who was not to rule
India instead of who was to. Nana Saheb died on hearing the news on June
23, 1761.
    He was succeeded by Madhav Rao (1761-72), Narayana Rao (1772-73),
Sawai Madhav Rao (1773-95), and Baji Rao (1795- 1818).
                      MARATHA CONFEDERACY
  Origin and Causes It originated, as already mentioned, during the
  administration of the second Peshwa, Baji Rao I. Compelled partly by the