Indirect influence of religious reformers like the Sikh gurus, Ramdas
(Maharashtra), Satnamis, Mahadawis, Raushaniyas and others.
Akbar II (1806–37)
He conferred the title of ‘Raja’ on Ram Mohan Roy and requested the latter
to go to England to plead for a hike in the emperor’s pension.
Bahadur Shah II (1837–58)
He was the last Mughal Emperor. Deported to Rangoon in 1858 after the
Revolt of 1857, his death came in 1862.
MARATHA POWER UNDER THE PESHWAS
Balaji Viswanath (1713–20)
He began his career as a small revenue official who was given the title of
‘Sena Karte’ (marker of the army) by Shahu in 1708. He became Peshwa in
1713 and made the post the most important and powerful as well as
hereditary. He played a crucial role in the civil war and was responsible for
the final victory of Shahu by winning over almost all the Maratha sardars to
the side of Shahu. He concluded an agreement with the Sayyid brothers
(1719) by which the Mughal emperor (Farukh Siyar) recognised Shahu as the
king of the swarajya, released all his family members and allowed Shahu to
collect chauth and sardeshmukhi from the six Mughal provinces of the
Baji Rao (1720–40)
Baji Rao, the eldest son of Balaji Viswanath, suc-ceeded him as Peshwa at
the young age of 20. He was considered the greatest exponent of guerrilla
tactics after Sivaji and Maratha power reached its zenith under him.
His period saw the beginning of the system of confederacy and the rise of
Maratha chiefs. Under the system, each prominent Maratha chief was
assigned a territory as his sphere of influence, which he was supposed to
conquer on his own and which he could administer autonomously.
Consequently several Maratha families became prominent and got