Muhammad Shah (1719–48)
After the death of Rati, Muhammad Shah ascended the Mughal throne with
the help of the Sayyid brothers. In 1720 some of the nobles conspired against
the Sayyid brothers and murdered them. Muhammad’s reign saw the
foundation of the autonomous state of Hyderabad by Nizam-ul-Mulk in 1720.
During 1738-39, Nadir Shah invaded India and captured Delhi. Further, the
Mughals lost provinces west of the Indus, the Kohinoor diamond, the
peacock throne and other possessions.
Ahmad Shah (1748–54)
His reign saw the first invasion of India by Ahmad Shah Abdali (ruler of
Afghanistan and former general of Nadir Shah) in 1748. His Wazir, Imad-ul-
Mulk, blinded him, and placed Alamgir II on the throne.
Alamgir II (1754–59)
He was killed in 1759 by his Wazir, Imad-ul-Mulk.
Shah Alam II (1759–1806)
He was the son of Alamgir II, and though he succeeded his father in 1759 he
did not live in his capital in the initial years due to his fear of the wazir. He
was defeated in the battle of Buxar in 1764. Capture of Delhi by the British in
1803 was followed by his death in 1806 as a prisoner of the British.
                     CAUSES BEHIND DECLINE
  The Mughal power declined due to the following causes:
  Mistakes of Aurangzeb.
  Wars of succession.
  Weak personalities of the later Mughals.
  Deterioration in the organisation and character of the Mughal nobility.
  Failure of the Mughal economy to satisfy the minimum needs of its
  Breakdown of Mughal administration and armed power.
  Foreign invasions.
  Absence of the spirit of political nationalism among the people of the