strong didactic element and often projected a
relatively free from the prejudices, give a more correct picture and act as
major catalysts to the study of Indian history. They concentrated on the
conditions of the people, which helps us in finding the real-life of the
majority of the people.
Even these European sources, however, were not free from prejudices. They
had their own weaknesses.
Lack of knowledge about the Indian languages was one major hindrance.
As traders, they concentrated on the coastal strips and more on the European
enclaves and hence, did not have first hand information about the interiors of
Lastly, being Euro-centric in their dispositions, they often tried to project
India to be a backward country, which was highly prejudicial of their history.
Nevertheless, a combination of the chronicles and the travellers’ accounts
would give a correct picture of the times.
Regional Languages and Literature
Acquisition of Stability and Maturity In fact, Persian language and
literature was so developed and widespread in north India that Akbar
dispensed with the tradition of keeping revenue records in the local language
in addition to Persian. Regional languages acquired stability and maturity,
and some of the finest lyrical poetry was produced during this period. The
main reasons for this development were the preaching of the saintly teachers
in common and local languages, the noble cosmopolitan ideas of the religious
movements of the age, and the peace and stability secured by the Mughal
rulers. The dalliance of Krishna with Radha and the milk-maids, pranks of
the child Krishna and stories from Bhagavat Gita figure largely in lyrical
poetry in Bengali, Oriya, Hindi, Rajasthani and Gujarathi during this period.
Many devotional hymns to Rama were also composed and the Ramayana and
the Mahabharata translated into the regional languages, especially if they had
not been translated earlier. A few translations and adaptations from Persian
were also made. Both Hindus and Muslims contributed in this.
Major Developments Medieval Hindi in the Brij form, that is the dialect
spoken in the neighborhood of Agra, was also patronised by the Mughal
emperors and Hindu rulers. From the time of Akbar, Hindu poets began to be