increasing considerably. Gold and silver ornaments were very popular. The
imperial mints at various places produced a fine series of gold, silver and
copper coins, generally stamped with calligraphic devices. The art of
embroidery too made considerable progress. It was patronised in the imperial
palaces. The art of weaving and dyeing was cultivated with remarkable
success. Excellent carpets of the richest silk, brocades, muslins, shawls and
chitzes of this age became famous all over the world.
Persian Literature
Akbar During Akbar’s reign many historical works were written. They
were: Ain-i-Akbari and Akbar Namah by Abul Fazl; Muntakhab-ul-Tawarikh
by Badauni; Tarikh-i-Alfi by Mulla Daud; and Tabaqat-i-Akbari by Nizam-
ud-din Ahmad.
    Translation of several works was undertaken during Akbar’s reign.
Translation of different sections of the Mahabharata into Persian by many
scholars under the title of Razm Namah’, the Ramayana by Badauni; Atharva
Veda by Sarhindi; Lilawati (a work on mathematics) by Faizi; Rajatarangini
by Shahabadi. Translation of some Greek and Arabic works also into Persian.
    Poetry was given royal patronage. Among the famous poets were Gizali,
Faizi, Muhammad Hussain Naziri, Jamal-ud-din Urfi, Abdur Rahim Khan-i-
Khanan, etc.
Jahangir He wrote his autobiography, Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri famous for its
style, frankness and sincerity of views. He patronised many scholars and
learned men like Ghiyas Beg, Naqib Khan, Niamatulla, etc.
Shah Jahan He patronised many writers and historians like Abdul Hamid
Lahori (Padshah Namah) and Inayat Khan (Shah Jahan Namah). His son,
Dara Shikoh, besides writing a treatise on the technical terms of Hindu
pantheon, wrote a biography of the Muslim saints and got the Hindu
scriptures like the Gita, and Upanishads translated into Persian.
Aurangzeb He was a great scholar of Islamic theology and jurisprudence.
He appointed a board of ulema to compile authoritative passages from the
standard works of Hanafi fiqh (school of law) for the guidance of the qazis.
Known as the Fatawa-ul-Alamgiriyya , it was completed in 1672. Many
important historical works were       also written during his reign, namely,