etc., were painted with grace, charm and sincerity. Many incidents
from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were taken for themes.
Secondly, the Mughal school dealt with the materialistic aspect of the
animal life (the hunting of wild beasts, deer, fighting of elephants, etc.),
while the Rajput school dignified these creatures by giving them external
forms of Hindu deities, for example, the representation of Hanuman.
Thirdly, if the Mughal painting was materialistic, the Rajput painting was
spiritual; the one aimed at entertainment, the other at reflecting the sweet
serenity of Indian life and illustrating the religious belief of the people.
Thus, the Rajput school closely associated religion with art and hence,
differed from the secular and matter-of-fact Mughal school.
Contribution to Music
Another branch of cultural life in which Hindus and Muslims cooperated was
music. Akbar patronised Tansen of Gwalior who is credited with composing
many new melodies (ragas). Jahangir and Shah Jahan as well as many
Mughal nobles followed this example. There are many stories about the
burial of music by the orthodox Aurangzeb. Recent research shows that
Aurangzeb banished singing from his court, but not performance of musical
instruments. In fact, Aurangzeb himself was an accomplished veena player.
Music in all forms continued to be patronised by Aurangzeb’s queens in the
harem and by the nobles. That is why the largest number of books of classical
Indian music in Persian were written during Aurangzeb’s reign. But some of
the most important developments in the field of music took place later on in
the 18th century, during the reign of Muhammad Shah ‘Rangeela’ (1720–48).
Contribution to Other Arts
The account of fine arts under the Mughals would be incomplete if other arts
are not mentioned here. Though there was the Quranic prohibition, sculpture
was cultivated to some degree. We are told that the figures of Jaimal and
Patta, the defenders of the fort of Chittor in 1568, were erected and placed
outside the gates of the fort of Delhi. The peacock throne of diamonds,
emeralds, rubies and pearls and its enameled canopy mark the crowing