shows the emperor sitting on a big hourglass. He hands a book to a shaikh,
most probably Shaikh Hussain, the head of the shrine of Khwaja Moin-ud-in
Chisti in Ajmer. Next to him, the Ottoman Sultan humbly folds his hands,
while below him waits James I, king of England.
    In the field of portraiture Jahangir perfected another genre initiated by
Akbar. The early portraits show the persons standing or seated either in front
of the buildings or inside. The mature Jahangiri portrait however depicts the
full-length subjects standing against a plain turquoise or green background,
either in profile or three-quarter view. Many of these were copied for nobles,
so it is hard to identify the originals.
Shah Jahan Though interested mainly in architecture, he continued to
patronise painting. The high quality of craftsmanship continued, but the inner
vitality started to disappear. The paintings of this time lack both the dynamic
energy of Akbar’s time and the keen love of nature shown by Jahangir.
    The visit of the emperor with his nobles and royal ladies to ascetics and
dervishes constitutes a predominant theme of this period. Many night scenes
were also painted for the first time in the Mughal period. Subdued emotion,
unknown in the earlier objective style of Mughal painting, often pervades
these scenes. A new technique, consisting of fine, delicate line drawings
slightly tinted with washes of pale colours and gold and known as Siyahi
Qalam, became fashionable.
    ‘Emperor Shah Jahan on the peacock throne’, one of the best known
Mughal miniatures, has a double interest. On the one hand, it shows the
famous peacock throne—now lost, but much admired by contemporaries and
described by the French traveller Bernier. On the other hand, it typifies the
portraits of this time. The emperor sits in strict profile, a halo behind his head
and a flower in his right hand.
Aurangzeb He did not patronise any arts. Culture lost its vitality and
finally declined. Perhaps during his waning years he may have consented to
have his portraits painted, for there are surviving examples where he is shown
either as a bearded old man hunting or holding a copy of the Quran in his
Rajput School of Painting The Rajput School of Painting (1550–1750 AD)
had almost a simultaneous existence. Traces of fresco-painting in the