but sure lines. This exerted a great influence on late Rajput painting.
Jahangir He had a predilection for the art of painting which he cultivated
much more than architecture. During his residence at Allahabad as Salim, he
had already employed a number of painters, notably Aqa Riza, whose son
Abul Hasan later served under Jahangir. Other renowned painters of his time
included Bishan Das, Madhu, Anant, Manohar, Govardhan and Ustad
Mansur, through whom Mughal painting reached its zenith. The co-operation
of several painters on one work continued, but Jahangir could distinguish
which part each artist had contributed.
During this period European influence manifested itself more and more.
The colours became softer and less enamel-like than in the previous period.
They melt harmoniously together, especially in the more naturalistic
representation of landscapes. The custom of copying European paintings and
engravings continued. By that time book illustrations became outdated except
for the representation of fables, for example lyar-i-Danish and Anwar-i-
Suhaili. The portrayal of officers also continued. Jahangir preferred group
portraits as well as court scenes and different episodes of his life. ‘Jahangir
embracing Shah Jahan’ shows the same careful portrayal as in Akbar’s time.
Soon after his accession Jahangir ordered muraqqa (albums) composed of
mounted pictures of uniform size (40 ́ 24 cm). Completed around 1618, each
folio has either one or several paintings on one side and on the other exquisite
calligraphy. Arabesque or floral and animal motifs around the borders, all
richly interspersed with gold, frame these paintings beautifully. The original
idea of decorated borders came from Persia around 1570, but it attained
perfection in Jahangir’s time.
A new type of painting, born of the emperor’s great love of nature,
produced the most delightful pictures of his time, namely the animal and
flower representations. His painters used to accompany him on his outings
and often the emperor asked them to paint the lovely blossoms, plants, birds
and animals he noticed. These masterpieces show much fresher inspiration
than the countless court scenes and constitute the highest achievement in the
paintings of his reign. They illustrate the emperor’s charming memoirs,
Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri, which record many episodes from his daily life.
During the last ten years of Jahangir’s reign Mughal paintings reveal a
change: an increased predilection for symbolism. Mysticism also attracted