Their religious intolerance provoked the hostility of the Indian rulers and the
Piracy and their clandestine practices in trade could not hold ground for long.
They were unable to compete successfully with the other European
companies (internal limitations of Portugal such as limited population,
backward economy, etc.).
Discovery of Brazil diverted their attention from India.
Formation of the Company In March, 1602, by a charter of the Dutch
parliament the Dutch East India Company was formed with powers to make
wars, conclude treaties, acquire territories and build fortresses.
Establishment of Factories The Dutch set up factories at Masulipatam
(1605), Pulicat (1610), Surat (1616), Bimilipatam (1641 ), Karikal (1645),
Chinsura (1653), Kasimbazar, Baranagore, Patna, Balasore, Negapatam (all
in 1658) and Cochin (1663).
Overthrow of the Portuguese In the 17th century, they supplanted the
Portuguese as the most dominant power in European trade with the East,
including India. Pulicat was their main centre in India till 1690, after which
Negapatam replaced it.
Beginning of Anglo-Dutch Rivalry In the middle of the 17th century
(1654) the English began to emerge as a formidable colonial power. After
60–70 years of rivalry with the English, the Dutch power in India began to
decline by the beginning of the 18th century. Their final collapse came with
their defeat by the English in the battle of Bedera in 1759.
Loss of Settlements One by one the Dutch lost their settlements to the
English. Their expulsion from their possessions in India by the British came
in 1795.
Arrival of Mildenhall Before the East India Company established trade in
India, it was a merchant adventurer, John Mildenhall who arrived in India in
1599 by the overland route, ostensibly      for the purpose of trade with Indian