The Portuguese
Discovery of the New Sea Route The Cape route, a new all-sea route was
discovered from Europe to India by Vasco da Gama. He reached the port of
Calicut on the May 17, 1498, and was received warmly by the Hindu ruler of
Calicut (known by the title of Zamorin). He returned to Portugal in 1499.
Arrival of Cabral The arrival of Pedro Alvarez Cabral in India in 1500
and the second trip of Vasco da Gama in 1502 led to the establishment of
trading stations at Calicut, Cochin and Cannanore. Cochin was the early
capital of the Portuguese in India. Later Goa replaced it.
Arrival of Albuquerque Alfonso de Albuquerque arrived in India in 1503
as the commander of a squadron, and was appointed governor of the
Portuguese in India in 1509 (Albuquerque was the second Portuguese
governor in India, the first being Francisco de Almeida between 1505–09).
He captured Goa from the ruler of Bijapur in 1510. Albuquerque encouraged
his countrymen to marry Indian wives but persecuted Muslims. He died in
1515 leaving the Portuguese as the strongest naval power in India.
Other Governors Other important governors were Nino da Cunha (1529–
38), who transferred his capital from Cochin to Goa (1530) and acquired Diu
and Bassein (1534) from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, and Martin Alfonso de
Souza (1542–45). The famous Jesuit saint Francisco Xavier arrived in India
with him.
Establishment of Settlements The successors of Albuquerque established
settlements at Daman, Salsette, Chaul and Bombay on the western coast, and
at Sari Thome near Madras and Hugli in Bengal.
Decline of the Portuguese The Portuguese power witnessed a decline by
the end of the 16th century and gradually lost many of their settlements in
India:
They lost Hugli in 1631 when they were driven out by Qasim Khan, a
Mughal noble.
In 1661 the king of Portugal gave Bombay to Charles II of England as dowry
when he married the farmer’s sister.
The Marathas captured Salsette and Bassein in 1739.
In the end they were left only with   Goa, Diu and Daman which they retained