Condition of Peasants
Khudkashta Those peasants living in their own villages, owning their own
lands and implements. Two obligations to the state—payment of revenue
regularly and cultivation of his land. Some of them rented out their spare
lands and implements to the other two categories. They were called
mirasdars in Maharashtra and gharuhala or gaveti in Rajasthan. Their
economic and social superiority over the other two categories of peasants.
Economic superiority since they paid only the customary revenue to the state
and not any other tax as was paid by the other two categories. Social
superiority due to their land ownership rights, and being the core of the
village community.
Pahis Those who were basically outsiders but cultivated the rented lands in
a village either while staying in the neighbouring village or by staying in the
same village. Their division into two groups: non- residential pahis and
residential pahis. The former came from the neighbouring villages and
cultivated the rented lands without constructing residences in that village.
The latter came from the far-off villages and cultivated the rented lands by
constructing their residences in the village. The residential pahis could
transform themselves into khudkashta, if they had their own implements,
possession of implements being more important than that of lands, which
were in abundance. They were known as uparis in Maharashtra.
Muzariyams Those who belonged to the same village, but who did not
have either lands or implements and hence were heavily dependent on the
khudkashta for their supply. Their division into two groups: tenants-at-will
and those who had hereditary tenant rights. They formed the poorest section
of the peasantry and can be compared with the share-croppers of the later
Condition of Zamindars
Autonomous Zamindars           They     were the hereditary rulers of their