The army consisted of the infantry (Mavali foot soldiers playing the most
maintained their own) and the navy (consisting of two squadrons, each under
a Muslim and a Hindu).
Forts occupied an important position. Each fort was put under the charge of
three officers of equal rank (qilahdars) as a precaution against treachery, and
they were frequently transferred (by the end of his reign, Sivaji had 240 forts
Successors of Sivaji
Sambhaji (1680–89) The war of succession between Sambhaji, the elder
son, and Rajaram, the younger son, of Sivaji, resulted in the victory of the
former and imprisonment of the latter. Sambhaji provided protection and
support to Akbar, the rebellious son of Aurangzeb. But Akbar failed against
his father and departed to Persia. Sambhaji was also captured at Sangamesvar
by a Mughal noble and executed.
Rajaram (1689–1700) Rajaram was released and succeeded to the throne
with the help of the ministers at Raigarh. He fled from Raigarh to Jinji in
1689 (Jinji remained his base till 1698) due to a Mughal invasion in which
Raigarh was captured along with Sambhaji’s wife and son (Shahu) by the
Mughals. Jinji fell to the Mughals (1698) and Rajaram escaped ‘to Visalgarh
(Maharashtra). Rajaram died at Satara, which had become the capital after the
fall of Jinji. Rajaram’s administrative changes included the creation of the
new post of pratimdhi, thus taking the total number of ministers to nine.
Sivaji II and Tarabai (1700–1707) Rajaram was succeeded by his minor
son Sivaji II under the guardianship of his mother Tarabai. He attacked Berar
(1703), Baroda (1706) and Aurangabad.
Shahu (1707–1749) Shahu was released by the Mughal emperor Bahadur
Shah and this was the beginning of civil war (1707–14) between him and
Tarabai. Tarabai’s army was defeated by Shahu at the battle of Khed (1700)
and Shahu occupied Satara. The final defeat and imprisonment of Tarabai by
Shahu came in 1714. But the southern part of the Maratha kingdom with its
capital at Kolhapur continued to be under the control of the descendants of
Rajaram (Sivaji II and later Sambhaji II).
Shahu’s reign saw the rise of Peshwaship and transformation of the Maratha