own revenue officials (subahdars or karkuns in charge of revenue
administration of prants) helped in establishing a solid revenue regime.
Chauth and sardeshmukhi were collected not on his swarajya but on an
undefined belt of land which was legally part of the Mughal empire or the
Deccan states. Chauth was one-fourth of the land revenue paid to the
Marathas so as not be subjected to Maratha raids. Sardeshmukhi was an
additional levy of 10 per cent on those lands of Maharashtra over which the
Marathas claimed hereditary rights, but which formed part of the Mughal
  Sivaji was helped by the ashtapradhan (eight ministers) which was unlike
  a council of ministers, for there was no collective responsibility; each
  minister was directly responsible to Sivaji. The ashtapradhan included:
  Peshwa—Finance and general administration; later he became Prime
  Minister and assumed great importance.
  Sar-i-Naubat—Senapati or military commander; this was only an honorary
  post with no real military powers.
  Majumdar or Amatya—Accountant general during the rule of the
  Peshwas; he later became revenue and finance minister.
  Waqenavis—Intelligence, posts and household affairs.
  Surunavis or Sachiv—Also called chitnis, looked after correspondence.
  Dabir or Sumanta—Master of ceremonies.
  Pandit Rao—Charities and religious affairs.
  Most of the administrative reforms of Sivaji were based on Malik Ambar’s
  (Ahmadnagar) reforms.
Military Administration Ordinary soldiers were paid in cash, but the big
chiefs and military commanders were paid through the grant of revenues of
saran jam or mokasa (Jagirs). All ministers, except the nyayadhish and the
pandit rao had to participate in war. The hierarchy of army officials was like
this—sar-i-nauhat (senapati), panch hazari, jumladar, havaldar and naik.