the Adil Shah ruler to punish Sivaji, but the later murdered Afzal in 1659.
    Later Shaista Khan, governor of Deccan, was deputed by Aurangzeb to
put down the rising power of Sivaji in 1660. Sivaji was attacked by Mughal
forces from the north and Bijapur forces from the south. Sivaji lost Poona and
suffered several defeats between 1660 and 1663 till he made a bold attack on
Shaista’s military camp and plundered Surat (1664) and later Ahmadnagar.
Raja Jai Singh of Amber was then appointed by Aurangzeb to put down
Sivaji (1665) and Jai Singh succeeded in besieging Sivaji in the fort of
Purandhar. Consequently the treaty of Purandhar (1665) was signed
according to which:
Sivaji had to surrender 23 forts (and also the territories around them) out of
his 35 forts to Mughals.
The Mughals recognised Sivaji’s right to certain parts of the Bijapur kingdom
(some were already under Sivaji’s control and others were to be conquered).
Grant of a mansab of 5000 was to be effected in favour of Sivaji’s son.
    Sivaji visited Agra in 1666 where he was imprisoned after he managed to
escape from captivity he remained in relative silence for three years (1666–
69) and renewed his conflict with the Mughals by his second plunder of Surat
in 1670. For four years he carried on military conquests recovering all his
former forts and territories. In 1674 he was coronated at Raigarh and assumed
the title of ‘Haindava Dharmodharak’ (Protector of Hinduism).
    He formed an alliance with the Qutub Shahis of Golconda and led a
campaign into Bijapuri Karnataka (1676–79) and conquered Gingee (Jinji)
and Vellore, etc. But he refused to share the newly conquered territories with
Qutb Shah. Sivaji died in 1680.
Sivaji’s Administration
Revenue Administration Assessment of land revenue was based on
measurement. The kathi of Ambar was adopted as the measuring rod. Land
revenue was increased from 33 per cent to 40 per cent in later years. The
Swarajya was divided into a number of revenue divisions, called prants
consisting of two or more districts. Sivaji brought about changes in the
position of the hereditary revenue officials, variously called deshmukhs,
deshpandes, patils and kulkarnis. Though he did not completely do away