heirs, but one of his pregnant queens gave birth to a posthumous son Ajit
Singh. As the paramount power, Aurangzeb escheated the Maharaja’s
property upon his death and resumed the whole of Marwar into the khalisa.
Indra Singh Rathor, a grand-nephew of Jaswant, was subsequently made Raja
of Jodhpur. Though Ajit was put under house-arrest in Delhi, the Rathors
under Durgadas rescued and I took him to Marwar. Maharana Raj Singh of
Mewar joined Jaswant’s chief queen, Rani Hadi, in pressing Ajit’s right to his
father’s throne.
    In 1679 the emperor ordered his fourth son, Akbar, to invade Marwar,
But the prince instead declared himself emperor in 1681 with the support of
the Rajputs. Aurangzeb, who was appalled by the prince’s declaration of
independence, marched against him and managed to alienate the Rajputs
from Akbar by having a counterfeit treacherous letter, addressed to Akbar,
delivered to Durgadas’s camp. Rajputs deserted Akbar at midnight. Akbar
escaped to Marwar and fled to the court of Sivaji’s son Sambhaji. Meanwhile
Raj Singh’s son, Jai Singh, made peace with the emperor.
Expansion in the Deccan Aurangzeb left for the Deccan in September
1681, never to return to the north. In the Deccan Aurangzeb failed to assess
the situation realistically. Sivaji carved out an independent Maratha state in
the territories north and south of Konkan. To contain the Marathas,
Aurangzeb decided to invade Bijapur under Sikandar Adil Shah. Bijapur was
annexed in 1686 and the Adil Shahi dynasty came to an end. Bijapur was
made the seat of the Mughal provincial governor.
    Now it was the turn of Abul Hasan Qutub Shah of Golconda. Aurangzeb
ordered prince Muazzam to march against Golconda. Madanna and his
brother Akkanna were killed by the leading Qutub Shahi nobles, who accused
them of causing Aurangzeb’s invasion. However Muazzam himself was
condemned as a traitor by Aurangzeb and imprisoned with his entire family.
In 1687 a treacherous Afghan opened one of the gates of the fort to the
Mughal army and Golconda was annexed.
    Sambhaji was taken captive and executed at Sangamesvar and his family,
including his son Sahu, were captured. Aurangzeb gave Sahu the mansab of
7,000 and treated him well. But he misjudged the strength of the Maratha
guerrillas and the situation deteriorated. The booty from Bijapur and
Golconda relieved the emperor        temporarily from the need to utilise his