Shuja’s army was routed, and he himself took to flight. He was however
pursued by Mir Jumla as far as Bengal. In 1660 Shuja bade farewell to
Bengal which he had ruled for twenty years, and sailed for Arakan with his
family.
    Meanwhile Jai Singh pursued Dara with remarkable tenacity. Dara set off
towards the Bolan Pass but was taken captive by his treacherous Afghan
chief, Malik Jiwan, who handed him over to Jai Singh. Dara was brought to
Delhi and sentenced to death for committing apostasy (ridda or iritidad) by
stating in his Majma-ul-Bahrain that Islam and Hinduism were twin brothers
(1659). In 1666 Shah Jahan died, having been tended throughout his captivity
by Jahanara. His remains were buried beside his wife’s grave in the Taj
Mahal.
Aurangzeb (1658–1707)
Campaigns The first ten years of Aurangzeb’s rule were military and
politically a great success, Minor uprisings were instantly crushed. Chatrasal,
remained loyal for some years but he also, like Sivaji, later became the
champion of freedom in Bundelkhand. By 1661 Mir Jumla seized Kooch-
Bihar and marched up the Brahmaputra. Next year he entered Garhgaon (near
Gauhati), the Ahom capital. The Ahom army fled but their continual
depredations combined with pestilence and famine exacted a heavy toll on
the Mughals. Finally, prostrated by illness, Mir Jumla made peace with the
Ahom Raja and died on his way to Dacca.
Rebellions Aurangzeb’s early success is over- shadowed by his later
setbacks. The excesses committed by Abd-un-nabi, the faujdar of Mathura.
aroused the Jats around Mathura and Agra to rise in revolt. Gokla, a
zamindar, became the peasants’ leader and killed the faujdar. The emperor
himself marched to the area and put down temporarily by capturing and
executing Gokla (1669). But soon the Jats revived their activities, Chura man,
Rajaram’s son and successor, strengthened the Jat fort of Sinsani near
Bharatpur, and they fearlessly sacked regions around Agra and Delhi. Even
Akbar’s tomb at Sikandara was dug open in the hope of obtaining hidden
treasure.