him, each working for a short period only. In
and named it Aurangabad. The land revenue collected was, however,
insufficient to maintain the huge army necessary to control the hilly terrain.
The financial bickering between father and son forms a large part of
Aurangzeb’s correspondence known as the Adab-i-Alamgiri.
War of Succession Shah Jahan’s sudden illness in 1657 plunged the
empire into a civil war (1657–59) among his four sons—Dara Shikoh
(crown-prince), Shuja (governor of Bengal), Aurangzeb (governor of
Deccan) and Murad Baksh (governor of Malwa and Gujarat). Of their sisters,
Jahanara Begum called Begum Sahiba, was Dara’s partisan, Roshanara
supported Aurangzeb, and Gauharara acted as a spy for Murad. Shah Shuja
and Aurangzeb had made a friendly alliance. Murad also became friendly
with Aurangzeb. On hearing of Shah Jahan’s illness, their clandestine
correspondence became more frequent.
    Though Shah Jahan had recovered by November 1657, the princes
refused to believe the news and raised the battle-cry of liberating Shah Jahan
from Dara’s vicious control. Murad declared himself king, and Shah Shuja
proclaimed his independence in Bengal. When Shah Shuja reached Banaras,
Dara’s son, Sulaiman Shikoh, defeated him. But Aurangzeb moved
cautiously. Early in 1658 he set off from Aurangabad and met Murad at
Dipalpur near Ujjain, and the two armies camped at Dharmat. The imperial
forces under Maharaja Jaswant Singh had already arrived at Ujjain to prevent
the princes from proceeding to Agra. In the battle that followed the princes
gained the upper hand and the Rajputs fled. Now Dara moved to Samugarh,
near Agra, to give battle, but was outmaneuvered and rushed to Agra.
    After besieging Agra, Aurangzeb rejected all Shah Jahan’s invitations to
visit him. When the supply of Jamuna water was also stopped, Shah Jahan
wrote a pathetic letter complaining to Aurangzeb and finally opened the
gates. The emperor was confined within the ladies’ palace, and Aurangzeb
refused to see his father until he had killed Dara, whom he declared an
infidel.
    Aurangzeb and Murad marched together from Agra towards Delhi in
pursuit of Dara. But on the way Aurangzeb treacherously took Murad captive
and later sentenced him to death. Aurangzeb then moved to Delhi, forcing
Dara to flee the Punjab. At Delhi, Aurangzeb formally crowned himself king
with the title Alamgir (Conqueror    of the Universe). The pursuit of Dara was