deep appreciation of nature as well as his inherent inquisitiveness.
Shah Jahan (1627–58)
Succession Jahangir’s death made the struggle for the throne imminent.
Nur Jahan alerted Shahryar to prepare for war. Asaf Khan sent messengers to
Khurram, urging him to come to Agra post-haste. Asaf played for time by
proclaiming one of Jahangir’s favourites, Khusrau’s son Dawar Baksh, king.
Shahryar proclaimed himself king but Asaf Khan defeated him, imprisoning
him and Daniyal’s two sons. Before Khurram reached Agra, Dawar Baksh,
his brother Shahryar, and Daniyal’s two sons were beheaded. Parvez had
already died Khurram proclaimed himself emperor as Shah Jahan. The cold-
blooded murder of all possible contenders for the throne had removed any
threat from the imperial family to Shah Jahan’s rule.
Military Campaigns Shah Jahan’s war against the Bundelas was endemic.
During Jahangir’s reign Bir Singh Bundela had become the emperor’s
favourite by assassinating Abul Fazl. After his death his son Jujhar succeeded
him. Jujhar and his son, Vikramajit, rebelled against the Mughals, but the
imperialist forces pursued them relentlessly and eventually murdered them.
    The Mughal inability to fight prolonged wars in mountains frustrated
Shah Jahan’s ambitions to conquer Transoxiana, his ancestral lands. The
Mughals lost more than five thousand lives during their successive invasions
between 1639 and 1647. Shah Jahan became more realistic and stopped
dreaming of ruling over his former ancestral lands.
    Shah Jahan’s imperial policies were more successful in the Deccan. Malik
Ambar had died. Shah Jahan enticed some Maratha leaders into his service.
The most eminent among them was Shahji Bhonsle. Malik Ambar’s son, Fath
Khan, failed to get the cooperation of the Nizam Shahi nobles, and
consequently he surrendered to Mughals. In 1636 Shah Jahan again arrived in
Daulatabad. The Ahmadnagar kingdom was unable to resist the Mughal
onslaught and lost its independence. Both Bijapur and Golconda signed a
treaty with the emperor. Khandesh, Berar, Telengana and Daulatabad were
made into four Mughal provinces.
    The first viceroy, Aurangzeb, controlled all four provinces from 1636 to
1644. Six viceroys succeeded