Zabti or Bandobast System Under this system a new jama was prepared.
Raja Todar Mal (a Khattri) found the old jama figures unreliable and hence
collected correct figures from the qanungos and in the 15th regnal year the
new jama came into force.
The karori experiment was began by Akbar with the extension of khalisa
land, so as to provide facilities to revenue department to collect extensive
data. Khalisa land was divided into circles. each yielding revenue of one
karor. That is why it is known as the karori experiment. Each circle was
placed under a revenue official called karori. Aim was to make as extensive a
measurement as possible, then use it as a basis for compiling a new general
Instead of a rope, a tanab made of bamboo sticks joined by iron rings, came
to be used for measuring land in 1575.
Measurement was not possible in all subahs of the empire. That is why in
some subahs the old systems. viz. batai. kankut. etc. continued. Thus
wherever possible measurement was undertaken and sufficient information
was acquired. All these measures were part of a new system of revenue
calculation, called the zabti or bandohast system.
Dahsala System On the basis of the above zabti system fresh reforms were
undertaken by Todar Mal. These reforms, collectively known as Ain-i-
Dahsala, were completed in 1580.
Under this system land was classified into four categories, viz. polaj—
annually cultivated, parauti—left fallow for a short period (1 or 2 years),
chachar—left fallow for 3 to 4 years, and banjar—uncultivated for 5 years or
In 1588 Todar Mal introduced a uniform unit of measurement, Ilahi gaz,
which is a medium gaz of 41 digits (33 inches). Further as Abul Fazl
mentioned, according to Ain-i-Dahsala, a 10-years state of every paragana
was ascertained in regard to the category of cultivation and level of prices.
The aim was to introduce a permanent jama (dastur ul-amal) and remove
difficulties and delays associated with yearly sanction. So in the 24th regnal
year final dasturs giving cash rates per bigha were prepared for different
localities. Average cash rate of previous 10 years’ harvest was derived, and
cash rate was fixed once for all. Dasturs for cash crops were fixed separately.