the above precautions, the control of the centre
Revenue Administration
Up to Akbar’s 8th regnal year, Sher Shah’s system continued to be the basis
with some modifications to meet the growing need for granting jagirs. A
series of experiments were made till Akbar’s 24th regnal year, after which the
land revenue administration was stabilised. It can be examined under several
heads.
Land Ownership
Proprietorship (i.e. hereditary rights only) of peasants on soil was recognised.
Abul Fazl, for instance, says: ‘Field belongs to him who clears away timber.’
King, zamindars and jagirdars had only the superior rights over the revenue.
Methods of Calculation
Central government usually fixed rates annually according to yield which
fluctuated. Akbar, however, wanted a uniform system of assessment through
which he could make an accurate estimate of crops, so that there would be
minimum chances of oppression by officers and less fraud by the cultivators.
Some of the prevailing methods are discussed below.
Batai or Galla-Baksh In this sharing was done in different ways. Firstly,
after the harvest of the crop, government claim was taken by directly going to
the fields. Secondly, after the harvest, crop was divided into equal heaps and
specified heaps were taken by the government officer. Thirdly, before the
harvest itself, the standing crop was surveyed and state share fixed by making
a line of demarcation.
Kankut Cultivator and official arrived at a general estimate of produce of
the whole area on the basis of sample survey by mutual agreement.
Nasaq In this method the revenue payable by the cultivator was estimated
on the basis of past experience.
Measurement Introduced by Ala-ud-din Khalji and followed by Sher Shah
also; system of dividing land into 3 categories—good, bad and middling.